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|What is the difference between SQL and PL/SQL?|
|Both SQL and PL/SQL are languages used to access data within Oracle databases. SQL is a limited language that allows you to directly interact with the database. You can write queries (SELECT), manipulate objects (DDL) and data (DML) with SQL. PL/SQL is a programming language that includes all the features of most other programming languages. its easily integrate with SQL. SQL is executed one statement at a time. PL/SQL is executed as a block of code. SQL tells the database what to do (declarative), not how to do it. In contrast, PL/SQL tell the database how to do things (procedural).|
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|What is PL/SQL ?|
|SQL is a declarative language that allows database programmers to write a SQL declaration and hand it to the database for execution. As such, SQL cannot be used to execute procedural code with conditional, iterative and sequential statements. To overcome this limitation, PL/SQL was created. PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural Language extension to SQL.using plsql we perform Conditional Control ,Iterative Sequential Control Statements.it is commonly used to write data-centric programs to manipulate data in an Oracle database.|
|What is the Difference between PL/SQL Table & Nested Table?|
|PL/SQL Table: Index by Tables are not Stored in Database. Nested Table: Nested Tables are Stored in Database as Database Columns.|
|What is the Sequence of Firing Database Triggers?|
a) Before Statement Level Trigger
|What is Instead Of Trigger?|
|This trigger is used to perform DML operation directly on the underlying tables, because a view cannot be modified by normal DML Statements if it contains joins or Group Functions. These triggers are Only Row Level Triggers. The CHECK option for views is not enforced when DML to the view are performed by Instead of Trigger.|
|Give some important Oracle supplied packages?|
DBMS_SQL: It is used to write Procedures & Anonymous blocks that use Dynamic SQL.
|Give some most often used system defined exceptions?|
a) NO_DATA_FOUND (Select Statement returns no rows)
|What is a mutating and constraining table?|
“Mutating” means “changing”. A mutating table is a table that is currently being modified by an update, delete, or insert statement. When a trigger tries to reference a table that is in state of being changed, it is considered “mutating” and raises an error since Oracle should not return data that has not yet reached its final state. Another way this error can occur is if the trigger has statements to change the primary, foreign or unique key columns of the table off which it fires.
|Can one call DDL statements from PL/SQL?|
|One can call DDL statements like CREATE, DROP, TRUNCATE, etc. from PL/SQL by using the “EXECUTE IMMEDATE” statement.|
|What is Commit, Rollback and Save point?|
Commit – Makes changes to the current transaction permanent. It erases the savepoints and releases the transaction locks.
Savepoint –Savepoints allow to arbitrarily hold work at any point of time with option of later committing. They are used to divide transactions into smaller portions.
Rollback – This statement is used to undo work.
|How do you make a Function and Procedure as a Private?|
|Functions and Procedures can be made private to a package by not mentioning their declaration in the package specification and by just mentioning them in the package body.|
|What is the difference between Package, Procedure and Functions?|
A package is a database objects that logically groups related PL/SQL types, objects, and Subprograms.
Procedure is a sub program written to perform a set of actions and can return multiple values.
Function is a subprogram written to perform certain computations and always return a value.
|What are the modes for passing parameters to Oracle?|
There are three modes for passing parameters to subprograms
|What is Raise_application_error?|
|Raise_application_error is a procedure of package DBMS_STANDARD which allows to issue a user_defined error messages from stored sub-program or database trigger.|
|What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT? Explain the usage?|
he PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to associate an exception with an oracle error.
|What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM and why are they important for PL/SQL developers?|
SQLCODE returns the value of the error number for the last error encountered.
|What is a package spec and package body? Why the separation?|
Spec declares public constructs. Body defines public constructs, additionally declares and defines Private constructs.
|Pipes and Cistern|
Three taps A,B and C can fill a tank in 12, 15 and 20 hours respectively. If A is open all the time and B and C are open for one hour each alternatively, the tank will be full in?
Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 6 hours and 4 hours respectively. If they are opened on alternate hours and if pipe A s opened first, in how many hours, the tank shall be full?
A large tanker can be filled by two pipes A and B in 60 min and 40 min respectively. How many minutes will it take to fill the tanker from empty state if B is used for first half of the time, and A and B fill it together for the other half?
A tank is filled by 3 pipes with uniform flow. The first two pipes operating simultaneously fill the tank in the same time during which the tank is filled by the third pipe alone. The 2nd pipe fills the tank 5 hours faster than first pipe and 4 hours slower than third pipe. The time required by first pipe is?
Two pipes A and B together can fill a cistern in 4 hours. Had they been opened separately, then B would have taken 6 hours more than A to fill the cistern. How much time will be taken by A to fill the cistern separately?
Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 24 min and 32 min respectively. If both the pipes are opened simultaneously, after how much time B should be closed so that the tank is full in 18 min?
Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 36 min and 45 min respectively. A water pipe C can empty the tank in 30 min. First A and B are opened. after 7 min, C is also opened. In how much time, the tank is full?
Two pipes can fill a cistern in 14 hours and 16 hours respectively. The pipes are opened simultaneously and it is found that due to leakage in the bottom it took 32 min more to fill the cistern. When the cistern is full, in what time will the leak empty it?
Bucket P has thrice the capacity as Bucket Q. It takes 60 turns for Bucket P to fill the empty drum. How many turns it will take for both the buckets P and Q, having each turn together to fill the empty drum?
In a class , 30 % of the students offered English, 20 % offered Hindi and 10 % offered Both.If a student is offered at random, what is the probability that he has offered English or Hindi?
In a lottery ,there are 10 prizes and 25 blanks.A lottery is drawn at random. what is the probability of getting a prize ?
Two dice are thrown simultaneously .what is the probability of getting two numbers whose product is even?
Two diced are tossed the probability that the total score is a prime number?
Two cards are drawn at random from a pack of 52 cards What is the probability that either both are black or both are queens?
Two dice are thrown together .What is the probability that the sum of the number on the two faces is divisible by 4 or 6?
A bag contains 6 white and 4 black balls .Two balls are drawn at random .Find the probability that they are of the same colour?
In a simultaneous throw of a pair of dice,find the probability of getting a total more than 7?
An unbiased die is tossed.Find the probability of getting a multiple of 3?
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|Jobs in Punjab|
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|Jobs in Chhattisgarh|
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