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Define exception and How will you raise an exception in PL/SQL procedure?
In PL/SQL, a error condition is called an exception. Exceptions can be system defined or user defined.
Examples of system defined exceptions include division by zero and out of memory. Some common system exceptions have predefined names, such as ZERO_DIVIDE and STORAGE_ERROR.
The following example illustrates the scope rules:
DECLARE due EXCEPTION; BEGIN RAISE due; EXCEPTION WHEN due THEN Null; END;
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|What is PL/SQL ?|
|SQL is a declarative language that allows database programmers to write a SQL declaration and hand it to the database for execution. As such, SQL cannot be used to execute procedural code with conditional, iterative and sequential statements. To overcome this limitation, PL/SQL was created. PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural Language extension to SQL.using plsql we perform Conditional Control ,Iterative Sequential Control Statements.it is commonly used to write data-centric programs to manipulate data in an Oracle database.|
|What is the difference between SQL and PL/SQL?|
|Both SQL and PL/SQL are languages used to access data within Oracle databases. SQL is a limited language that allows you to directly interact with the database. You can write queries (SELECT), manipulate objects (DDL) and data (DML) with SQL. PL/SQL is a programming language that includes all the features of most other programming languages. its easily integrate with SQL. SQL is executed one statement at a time. PL/SQL is executed as a block of code. SQL tells the database what to do (declarative), not how to do it. In contrast, PL/SQL tell the database how to do things (procedural).|
|What is the Difference between PL/SQL Table & Nested Table?|
|PL/SQL Table: Index by Tables are not Stored in Database. Nested Table: Nested Tables are Stored in Database as Database Columns.|
|What is the Sequence of Firing Database Triggers?|
a) Before Statement Level Trigger
|What is Instead Of Trigger?|
|This trigger is used to perform DML operation directly on the underlying tables, because a view cannot be modified by normal DML Statements if it contains joins or Group Functions. These triggers are Only Row Level Triggers. The CHECK option for views is not enforced when DML to the view are performed by Instead of Trigger.|
|Give some important Oracle supplied packages?|
DBMS_SQL: It is used to write Procedures & Anonymous blocks that use Dynamic SQL.
|Give some most often used system defined exceptions?|
a) NO_DATA_FOUND (Select Statement returns no rows)
|What is a mutating and constraining table?|
“Mutating” means “changing”. A mutating table is a table that is currently being modified by an update, delete, or insert statement. When a trigger tries to reference a table that is in state of being changed, it is considered “mutating” and raises an error since Oracle should not return data that has not yet reached its final state. Another way this error can occur is if the trigger has statements to change the primary, foreign or unique key columns of the table off which it fires.
|Can one call DDL statements from PL/SQL?|
|One can call DDL statements like CREATE, DROP, TRUNCATE, etc. from PL/SQL by using the “EXECUTE IMMEDATE” statement.|
|What is Commit, Rollback and Save point?|
Commit – Makes changes to the current transaction permanent. It erases the savepoints and releases the transaction locks.
Savepoint –Savepoints allow to arbitrarily hold work at any point of time with option of later committing. They are used to divide transactions into smaller portions.
Rollback – This statement is used to undo work.
|How do you make a Function and Procedure as a Private?|
|Functions and Procedures can be made private to a package by not mentioning their declaration in the package specification and by just mentioning them in the package body.|
|What is the difference between Package, Procedure and Functions?|
A package is a database objects that logically groups related PL/SQL types, objects, and Subprograms.
Procedure is a sub program written to perform a set of actions and can return multiple values.
Function is a subprogram written to perform certain computations and always return a value.
|What are the modes for passing parameters to Oracle?|
There are three modes for passing parameters to subprograms
|What is Raise_application_error?|
|Raise_application_error is a procedure of package DBMS_STANDARD which allows to issue a user_defined error messages from stored sub-program or database trigger.|
|What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT? Explain the usage?|
he PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to associate an exception with an oracle error.
|What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM and why are they important for PL/SQL developers?|
SQLCODE returns the value of the error number for the last error encountered.
|General Knowledge of India|
How many coastal state are in India?
A person is to count 4500 currency notes. Let an denote the number of notes he counts in the nth minute. If a1 = a2 = .... = a10 = 150 and a10 , a11 ,... are in an AP with common difference – 2, then the time taken by him to count all notes is ?
The value of product 6 1/2 * 6 1/4 * 6 1/8 * 6 1/16 * -----∞ upto infinite terms?
What is nohup command in unix?
How do display the 10th, 11th and 12th line of a file in Unix?
The mean of 100 students marks was found to be 40. it was found later that a mark 53 was read as 83. the correct mean is?
The geometric mean of three observations 40, 50 and X is 10, then the value of X is ?
Who appoints the members of National human rights commission?
The President of India can resign by writing under his hand addressed to?
Under which article of the constitution of India can the President of India refer a matter to the Supreme Court for its opinion?
|General Computer Knowledge|
The term VPN stands for ?
The transmission control protocol(TCP) is a............ layer protocol ?
What is the difference between Procedure and Function?
Define exception and How will you raise an exception in PL/SQL procedure?
What is the advantage of using packages for storing PL/SQL objects?
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If I ______ a king, I would help everyone.
Radha___________her daughter for an hour.
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